callosobruchus chinensis economic importance

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Subsequent CCM identified significant interspecific interactions; cross‐mapping with the optimal embedding parameters showed significant convergence in all combinations of species and treatments under at least some time lag l (Figure 3). Because frequent heterospecific encounter and consequently frequent interspecific copulation intensifies reproductive interference (Kyogoku & Nishida, 2013), it is possible that the locomotor activity underlies the evolution of reproductive interference capability under polygamy. The pulse beetle,(Callosobruchus chinensis (L.)) is the most serious pest of pulses in tropical and subtropical countries. D. K. conceived the study, conducted the experiments and data analyses, and drafted the paper. For example, harmful effects of sexually selected male traits can reduce conspecific female fitness (Gay et al., 2011; Rice, 1996), and female mate choice for males in good condition can increase population fitness by purging unfit alleles (Lumley et al., 2015). Second, we examined whether characteristics of interspecific interactions had evolved due to sexual selection, by testing the prediction that sexually selected and nonselected C. chinensis may show different intensities of interspecific interactions during competition with C. maculatus. However, this difference was not robust to embedding parameters (Figure 4a, Table S1). This reproductive interference by C. chinensis males with C. maculatus females appears to be intensified by sexual selection on the former (Kyogoku & Sota, 2015, 2017). 2012) and is an important economic crop in China (Zong et al. Snail‐eating snakes show laterally asymmetric adaptations in morphology and behavior that allow them to eat snails with the more common chirality, which in turn enables snails with less common chirality to escape predation by these snakes (Hoso et al., 2010). Both C. chinensis and C. maculatus are pests of postharvest Vigna beans. They bite holes in the grains to enter inside and feed on kernel, damaging several grains in the process. Hosts: A pest of pulses, cowpea, soybean, gram, pigeon pea, lablab etc. To examine the strength of interspecific interactions during the competition experiment, we analyzed the time series of census data using EDM, which is based on the state space reconstruction, for example, from a single time series with lagged coordinate embedding: xt = {x(t), x(t − τ), x(t − 2τ),…, x(t − (E − 1)τ)}, where x(t) is the value of variable x at time t, τ is the embedding lag and E is the embedding dimension. For C. maculatus xmap C. chinensis, l was 0 for polygamous treatment, and monogamous treatment showed comparable peaks at l = 0 and − 3, with the latter producing slightly higher forecast skill. On day 22, we introduced only beans. The details of EDM analysis are available in the Supplementary material. T.S. Callosobruchus chinensis persisted for 17–37 weeks (mean: 22.7 weeks) for monogamous lines and 14–40 weeks (mean: 20.7 weeks) for polygamous lines. We thank K. Kawatsu, Y. Osada and M. Ushio for their advice on EDM, K. Matsuura for the incubator, S. Dobata for the help in data collection, and S. Kishi for providing the data underlying Kishi et al. Similarly, if C. chinensis is outcompeted by C. maculatus, sexually selected C. chinensis may persist longer than sexually nonselected C. chinensis. We test two hypotheses using this experimental system. The demographic effect of C. maculatus on C. chinensis, estimated by S‐map with optimal embedding parameters, suggested that the population growth of C. chinensis was suppressed more strongly by C. maculatus in polygamous than in monogamous treatment (Figure 4a). It was possible that the C. chinensis evolutionary lines had accumulated deleterious alleles due to their small effective population sizes during the experimental evolution and had unusual characters. Recent studies have suggested that male–male competition within a species selects for capability to reproductively interfere with a closely related species. EDM is an analysis method for deterministic, nonlinear systems (Chang, Ushio, & Hsieh, 2017). B. We then examined the demographic interactions between C. chinensis and C. maculatus by performing cross‐mapping. 0.7.2). All data analyses were performed using R software (ver. They infest pulses both in the field and in storage, causing considerable economic losses (Srivastava and Pant, 1989; Ramzan et al., 1990). However, in a parallel competition experiment using the jC‐F strain of C. chinensis which was used in Kishi et al. Our study thus suggests multifaceted effects of sexually selected traits on interspecific competitive dynamics. For example, sexual selection under polygamy may have selected for active locomotion (e.g., to encounter females frequently; see also Martinossi‐Allibert, Thilliez, Arnqvist, & Berger, 2018). Different beak sizes of Darwin's finches allow them to forage different food items, achieving niche segregation (Grant & Grant, 2006; De León, Podos, Gardezi, Herrel, & Hendry, 2014). The time lag difference suggests differential timescales at which interspecific interactions exert their demographic effects. It contains about 26 per cent protein which is almost three times that of the cereals. Adults are sexually mature at emergence, and they can mate and lay eggs without food or water. Effect of Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L on Oviposition and Damage in Some Important Genotypes of Pulse Crops in Bangladesh. The experimental method followed Kishi et al. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. The effect on the mean time until extinction was analyzed using a linear mixed model (LMM), where mating regime and line replicates were included as fixed and random effects, respectively. For time series analysis, we counted the number of beetles at bean replacements for four replicates: two involving a polygamous C. chinensis line and the other two involving a monogamous line. Specifically, we performed CCM to determine the causal effect from one species to the other and their time lags. The life cycle of the most economically important species of bruchid is relatively short. Key words: Black gram, Botanical powders, Callosobruchus chinensis, Grain protectant. For the applicability of EDM to C. chinensis‐C. Starting on day 29, we replaced the oldest beans with new beans every 7 days. Further investigations will deepen our understanding of the role of sexual selection in determining ecological dynamics. In the univariate simplex projection for polygamous C. chinensis, the forecast skill was highest with the embedding dimension E = 5, the embedding lag τ = 1, and the time to predict TP = 3. The strongest negative influences from C. chinensis to C. maculatus were estimated with no time lg (l = 0) in both treatments. Such studies have identified evolutionary responses in reproductive traits in accordance with theoretical predictions. Indeed, particularly strong positive effects were observed at early stage of competition, when the density was low (Figure S6). Working off-campus? We pooled estimated S‐map coefficients and compared their distributions between treatments. We have no definite explanation for this result, yet it is likely that some characters related to competitive ability of C. chinensis lines and/or the C. maculatus strain differed from those used in Kishi et al. Pea is an important fodder and medically edible crop, rich in nutrients (Zheng et al. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, Convergent cross‐mapping for interspecific interactions. We made six replicates for each of the six C. chinensis evolutionary lines. Data Availability Statement:: The data underlying this study is available on Dryad (DOI: Furthermore, S‐map coefficients suggested that C. chinensis abundance frequently had facilitative effects on C. maculatus. This result adds to the growing literature on the side effects of sexual selection on ecological dynamics (Lumley et al., 2015; Rankin, Dieckmann, & Kokko, 2011; Takahashi, Kagawa, Svensson, & Kawata, 2014). INTRODUCTION Black gram or urad (Vigna mungo Linnaeus) is one of the important pulse crops in India. are important pests of pulses. The (2009), in which C. chinensis exerted reproductive interference effectively and necessarily outcompeted C. maculatus, C. chinensis was conversely outcompeted by C. maculatus in all trials of our study (Figures 1 and 2). Though we used the same experimental settings with those of Kishi et al. For monogamous C. chinensis, the optimal embedding parameters were (E, τ, TP) = (4, 3,4). Daisuke Kyogoku, Research Institute for Food and Agriculture, Ryukoku University, Otsu, Shiga, 520-2194, Japan. Callosobruchus chinensis was competitively excluded by C. maculatus in all trials.

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