and J.E. Our references to specific commercial vendors for supplies are intended to assist you in finding the types of supplies we have used, but these references are not an endorsement of these particular vendors. Although bean beetles can be reared successfully on these three species, they differ in nutrient quality (USDA Agricultural Research Service) and secondary compounds (Bisby et al. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference.http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/ Accessed 25 June 2009. session so others can sign in. Several transcriptome assemblies are available through GenBank and are available for BLAST search on this website. Bush, D.A. 2011). As a result, they are easy to handle. Freeze any suspect items at zero degrees Fahrenheit for six days. Cultures established in this manner will typically sustain two or three sequential generations without adding additional beans and without inducing the production of dispersal morph adults. Male and female bean beetles (of the sedentary morph) are easily distinguished from one another by general appearance. To mate beetles, place beetles into a 35mm Petri dish (for example, Falcon 351008, Fisher Scientific 08-757-100A or 60mm dish, Carolina Biological 741246 or Fisher Scientific 08-757-100B). 1976). de Almeida, P.W.M. Culturing Bean Beetle Microbiota and Phenotypic Analysis, Bioquip TM featherweight forceps 4748 or 4750, http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=678800, http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/. Pupation occurs inside the seed and an adult emerges by chewing and removing a circular piece of the seed coat to form a round exit hole (Figure 2f). Bruchinae (Latreille, 1802). Chapman and Hall, London. Plastic Petri dishes 150 x 25 mm (Falcon 353025, Fisher Scientific 08-772-6 or VWR 25383-103) are ideal containers from which students can easily view cultures and remove selected adults. de Boer, G. Jeong, D.K. A female C. maculatus beetle can lay over a hundred eggs during her adult life, and most of them will hatch. Life Cycle of Bean Beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) By Christopher W. Beck, Professor of Pedagogy, Emory University, and Lawrence S. Blumer, Professor of Biology, Morehouse College (excerpted from A Handbook on Bean Beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus. Therefore, we always start stock cultures in pairs (or more if needed) on the same date and we never dispose of old cultures until we see that a new culture has successfully yielded adults. Finding eggs on beans can be facilitated by using a dissection microscope (at 10x total magnification) or a large magnifying glass (2.5x magnifier Fisher Scientific 14-648-19 or VWR 62379-535). We also have had good results using plastic snap-lid containers ( 300 ml Corning 173010 Snap-Seal Sample Containers, Fisher Scientific 02-540-23 or VWR 16126-030) with pin-holes punched in the lid for ventilation. Starting new cultures requires no more than containers to contain beans and beetles. Although bean beetles are the easiest of insects to successfully culture, sometimes a culture will fail if adults were very old when introduced to the new culture container or too few adults were introduced for adequate numbers of eggs to be laid. The adults are fully mature 24 to 36 hours after emergence. Previous studies indicate that temperature and relative humidity (Howe and Currie 1964, Schoof 1941) are the most important variables influencing generation times (egg to adult) when beetles are raised on preferred host beans. Insects are protostomous animals and are thus more closely related to mollusks and crustacea than to the deuterstomous vertebrate classes. Boeke, S.J., A.A.C. This group is part of the order of beetles, Coleoptera (from Greek “sheath-winged” referring the stiff outer, first pair of wings (elytra) that protect the membranous second pair of flight wings). A very short adult life span and a larval stage in which most or all life-time feeding occurs is not unusual in insects (for example the Order Ephemeroptera, mayflies), but this life cycle seems strange compared to the dominance of adult stages in familiar birds and mammals. 2011. Chi, Y.H., J.-E. Ahn, D.-J. Although the seed coat of the bean is still intact, a round 1-2mm window is apparent at the location where the beetle is pupating (Figure 2c). Insects are the largest and most diverse (750,000 described species) of all the animal classes that are found in all but marine environments. The larvae bore into the bean and several larvae infest the same bean. She lays these eggs on the surface of the bean (the type of bean is variable), where they remain. Automatic, rapid screening of seed resistance in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers, to the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) using acoustic monitoring. 1991. Ultimately, in evolutionary terms, the purpose of bean beetles is the same as in all other living things, reproduce and leave descendants.Ecologically, bean beetles are herbivores that have specialized on seed consumption.They are a part of food webs in that eggs and larvae are prey for parasitoid wasp species (Boeke et al. This species also is known as the southern cowpea weevil. Generation time also depends on the host species of bean you choose to use. Generally, females are larger in size than males, but there is much variation. The nucleotide database in the NCBI GenBank has more than 175 entries for C. maculatus. 2011. In our laboratory, we have observed generation times as short as 3-4 weeks in a 30°C incubator (12:12 day:night light cycle) and ambient humidity (averaging 30% RH and ranging from 20%-40% RH). 2006). The control of any stored product pest involves many steps, primary of which is discovery of infested food items or other sources of infestation (e.g., food spillage accumulation). 2007). RESIDENTIAL SERVICES This species is absent in much of North America because it is intolerant to freezing temperatures and suitable host plant species are not among our native (non-agricultural) flora. All other uses are prohibited without prior written permission from the copyright holders. How southern cowpea weevil larvae (Bruchidae Callosobruchus maculatus ) die on non-host seeds. Brown, E.A, L. Gay, R. Vasudev, T. Tregenza, P.E. Ecological Entomology 16:45-53. The first indication of an infestation is often the presence of numerous flying weevils. Heritable variation in body size is well described (Fox et al. 2004. All rights reserved. 1964. In colder climates the gestation period is typically longer taking anywhere fro… Sperm competition in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchedae): a comparison of two methods used to estimate paternity. You can now claim your publications on CAB Direct with your ORCID iD! A gentle prod with forceps or brush will cause them to move. The larva that hatches from the egg burrows from the egg through the seed coat and into the bean endosperm without moving outside the protection of the egg. Bean beetles development is long-germ (Patel et al. Body Mass – To weigh individual beetles, a 0.1 mg analytical balance, at a minimum, is necessary (for example, Ohaus Analytical Balance Model PA84, Carolina Biological 702530, Fisher Scientific 02-112-298) . Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43 (2007):251–269. In low humidity locations, or during the winter in North America, when RH is typically low, the emergence rates of beetles may be improved by increasing the RH of an incubator or culture container. COMMERCIAL SERVICES. Especially when kept individually, bean beetles will often “play dead.” Don’t be fooled! Life Cycle Once inseminated, adult females will lay (oviposit) single fertilized eggs on the external surface of a bean. Pupation (Figures 2d) is the complete metamorphosis of the larval maggot to a winged adult. Reliably obtaining newly emerged adults for a specific date (a scheduled laboratory class meeting) requires that you grow cultures for a few months under your laboratory conditions so you can predict emergence times. As with the Petri dishes, we use only 50 ml of beans in each 300 ml snap-lid container. Differential effects of temperature, humidity and population density upon some ecological characters of the two phases. Continuing to use www.cabdirect.org Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 108:43–51. Bisby, F.A., J. Buckingham, and J.B. Harborne (editors).
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