The trials administered different amounts of vitamin D (ranging from 10 mcg [400 IU]/day to 1,000 mcg [40,000 IU]/week). A meta-analysis of prospective studies that evaluated the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and cancer incidence (8 studies) or cancer mortality (16 studies) found that cancer risk decreased by 7% and cancer mortality rates decreased by 2% with each 20 nmol/L (8 ng/mL) increase in serum 25(OH)D levels . Conclusions about vitamin D supplements and bone health N Engl J Med 2019;381:520-30. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of colorectal cancer. People can develop vitamin D deficiency when usual intakes are lower over time than recommended levels, exposure to sunlight is limited, the kidneys cannot convert 25(OH)D to its active form, or absorption of vitamin D from the digestive tract is inadequate. Is hypovitaminosis D related to incidence of type 2 diabetes and high fasting glucose level in healthy subjects: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Neurology 2017;89:1538-9. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;88:558S-64S. An official digital toolset for Fifth Edition (5e) Dungeons & Dragons (D&D). JAMA Intern Med 2015;175:745-54. One study found that when the 25(OH)D content of beef, pork, chicken, turkey, and eggs is taken into account, the total amount of vitamin D in the food is 2 to 18 times higher than the amount in the parent vitamin alone, depending on the food . An analysis of NHANES 2011–2014 data on serum 25(OH)D levels found that most people in the United States aged 1 year and older had sufficient vitamin D intakes according to the FNB thresholds . No studies have evaluated whether vitamin D supplements may benefit individuals under medical care for clinical depression who have low or deficient 25(OH)D levels and are taking antidepressant medication. The international Vitamin D Standardization Program has developed procedures for standardizing the laboratory measurement of 25(OH)D to improve clinical and public health practice [5,7-10]. [, Song Z-y, Yao Q, Zhuo Z, Ma Z, Chen G. Circulating vitamin D level and mortality in prostate cancer patients: A dose-response meta-analysis. The Power Generation segment includes regulated electric fleet and merchant electric fleet. [, Buckley LM, Leib ES, Cartularo KS, Vacek PM, Cooper SM. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. [, Jorde R, Grimnes G. Vitamin D: No cure for depression. [, Galior K, Grebe S, Singh R. Development of vitamin D toxicity from overcorrection of vitamin D deficiency: A review of case reports. Should You Invest in the Fidelity MSCI Utilities Index ETF (FUTY)? Because vitamin D is fat soluble, its absorption depends on the gut’s ability to absorb dietary fat . Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2009. Vitamin D. In: Erdman JW, Macdonald IA, Zeisel SH, eds. Join the ODS Email List. Vitamin D2 is manufactured using UV irradiation of ergosterol in yeast, and vitamin D3 is produced with irradiation of 7-dehydrocholesterol from lanolin and the chemical conversion of cholesterol . Vitamin D supplementation had no effect on the incidence rate of myocardial infarction, angina, heart failure, arrhythmia, arteriosclerosis, stroke, venous thrombosis, or death from CVD. Consumption of human milk alone does not ordinarily enable infants to meet vitamin D requirements, because it provides less than 0.6 to 2.0 mcg/L (25 to 78 IU/L) [1,57,58]. However, most evidence indicates that vitamin D3 increases serum 25(OH)D levels to a greater extent and maintains these higher levels longer than vitamin D2, even though both forms are well absorbed in the gut [33-36]. [, Lehmann U, Hirche F, Stangl GI, Hinz K, Westphal S, Dierkes J. Bioavailability of vitamin D2 and D3 in healthy volunteers, a randomised placebo-controlled trial. The study included 25,871 men aged 50 years and older and women aged 55 years and older who had no history of cancer, and most had adequate serum 25(OH)D levels at baseline. Nutrition 2015;31:421-9. [, Taylor CL, Roseland JM, Coates PM, Pehrsson PR. More than half the women who developed MS had deficient or insufficient vitamin D levels. Studies show that 25(OH)D appears to be approximately five times more potent than the parent vitamin for raising serum 25(OH)D concentrations [17,20,21]. Public Health Nutrition 2020;23:1153-64. J Am Geriatr Soc 1984;32:405-7. However, whether these lower levels in persons with dark skin have significant health consequences is not clear . [. Their skin probably synthesizes some vitamin D, even with typically applied sunscreen amounts [1,30]. [, Davis CD, Dwyer JT. Bone is constantly being remodeled. Many other countries around the world and some professional societies have somewhat different guidelines for vitamin D intakes . National Institutes of Health Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center. Levels of 1,25(OH)2D do not typically decrease until vitamin D deficiency is severe . b. a key, string, or pipe producing this note. Obtaining sufficient vitamin D from natural (nonfortified) food sources alone is difficult. 290-2007-10055-I. D Sub-Shell (third outer subshell of an electron shell) D: District spare (Stores 100 code) D: Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, Ohio (designates original point of circulation of a dollar bill) D: Cohen's Measure of Effect Size (statistics; usually expressed as italic d) D: Deutschverzeichnis (Works of Schubert by Otto Erich Deutsch) D Prospective population-based study of the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels and the incidence of specific types of cancer. There are currently no items in this Watchlist. The FNB established ULs for vitamin D in 2010 (Table 4) . Clinical trials to date provide little evidence that vitamin D supplementation helps maintain glucose homeostasis, reduces the risk of progression from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes, or helps manage the disease, particularly in vitamin D-replete individuals. Plant milk alternatives (such as beverages made from soy, almond, or oats) are often fortified with similar amounts of vitamin D to those in fortified cow's milk (about 3 mcg [120 IU]/cup); the Nutrition Facts label lists the actual amount . Use of vitamin D drops leading to kidney failure in a 54-year-old man. In practice, however, people usually do not apply sufficient amounts of sunscreen, cover all sun-exposed skin, or reapply sunscreen regularly. [, Travis RC, Perez-Cornago A, Appleby PN, Albanes D, Joshu CE, Lutsey PL, et al. [, Holick MF. Levels of 75 to less than 87.5 nmol/L (30 to less than 35 ng/mL) and 87.5 to less than 100 nmol/L (35 to less than 40 ng/mL) were associated with a 19% and 27% lower risk, respectively. Am J Cardiol 2007;99:903-5. Nutr Rev 2018;76:60-76. For men with prostate cancer, whether vitamin D supplementation lengthens cancer-related survival is not clear. [, Helzlsouer KJ for the VDPP Steering Committee. [, Schenk JM, Till CA, Tangen CM, Goodman PJ, Song X, Torkko KC, et al. Cancer Type B UV (UVB) radiation with a wavelength of approximately 290–320 nanometers penetrates uncovered skin and converts cutaneous 7-dehydrocholesterol to previtamin D3, which in turn becomes vitamin D3. [, Logan VF, Gray AR, Peddie MC, Harper MJ, Houghton LA. Screening for vitamin D status is becoming a more common part of the routine laboratory bloodwork ordered by primary-care physicians, irrespective of any indications for this practice [6,53-55]. Circulating vitamin D concentrations and risk of breast and prostate cancer: A Mendelian randomization study. Newberry SJ, Chung M, Shekelle PG, Booth MS, Liu JL, Maher AR, et al. Importantly, not all observational studies found higher vitamin D status to be beneficial, and the studies varied considerably in study populations, baseline comorbidities, and measurement of vitamin D levels. Effects of orlistat on fat-soluble vitamins in obese adolescents. [, Rooney MR, Harnack L, Michos ED, Ogilvie RP, Sempos CT, Lutsey PL. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and early death: Population-based study and meta-analyses of 18 and 17 studies. [, Salzer J, Hallmans G, Nystrom M, Stenlund H. Wadell G, Sundstrom P. Vitamin D as a protective factor in multiple sclerosis. Updated: October 9, 2020 History of changes to this fact sheet, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Strengthening Knowledge and Understanding of Dietary Supplements, My Dietary Supplement and Medicine Record, How To Evaluate Health Information on the Internet, NIH Consortium for Advancing Research on Botanical and Other Natural Products (CARBON) Program, Analytical Methods and Reference Materials (AMRM), Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID), Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS) Database, Food labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts labels, Guidance for industry: Food labeling guide, Food labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts labels and serving sizes of foods that can reasonably be consumed at one eating occasion; dual-column labeling; updating, modifying, and establishing certain reference amounts customarily consumed; serving size for breath mints; and technical amendments; proposed extension of compliance dates, The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer, Percent reporting and mean amounts of selected vitamins and minerals food and beverages and dietary supplements by gender and age, in the United States, 2015-2016, Usual nutrient intake from foods and beverages, by gender and age, Vitamin D and calcium: A systematic review of health outcomes (update), Associated with vitamin D deficiency, which can lead to rickets in infants and children and osteomalacia in adults, Generally considered inadequate for bone and overall health in healthy individuals, Generally considered adequate for bone and overall health in healthy individuals, Linked to potential adverse effects, particularly at >150 nmol/L (>60 ng/mL), Trout (rainbow), farmed, cooked, 3 ounces, Mushrooms, white, raw, sliced, exposed to UV light, ½ cup, Milk, 2% milkfat, vitamin D fortified, 1 cup, Soy, almond, and oat milks, vitamin D fortified, various brands, 1 cup, Ready-to-eat cereal, fortified with 10% of the DV for vitamin D, 1 serving, Sardines (Atlantic), canned in oil, drained, 2 sardines, Tuna fish (light), canned in water, drained, 3 ounces, Beef, ground, 90% lean, broiled, 3 ounces.