Abuja: Malthouse p, Africa” in Obasanjo, O., Mabogunje, A., Okebukola, P. Marx-Neef (1991) in particular posits that the inadequate satisfaction of the fundamental needs results into pathology and this pathology can be expressed economically through unemployment or poverty and politically through crime, violence, xenophobia and marginalization. This is not so because a conflict could exist independent of economic factors unless we want to argue that man’s reason for conflict is mainly economic in nature. Conflict theory views social and economic institutions as tools of the struggle between groups … New York: Harper and Row Publis, Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa. Crises working paper no. In business and economics, the two most common types of capital are financial and human. The class struggles in France 1848-18, Marx, K. (1852). Specifically, the positive effects of income inequality and separatist potential on political violence are enhanced in weak states. 132-144; I. William Zartman, "Putting Things Back Together," in Zartman, ed., Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority (Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 1995), pp. The state’s role is also a precondition for protracted social conflict. Opposing communities in ethnic civil conflicts hold irreconcilable visions of the identity, borders, and citizenship of the state... An econometric model of civil war is applied to the analysis of conflict in sub-Saharan Africa. We then apply the model to data on Hindu-Muslim violence in India. "Let no one think there is an easy or a simple solution to this tragedy," which results from "age-old animosities," said George Bush, "whatever pressure and means the international community brings to bear." Hence, the violent natures of the Nigerian state and her, that peace and security are the major ingredients that develop, pinpoint are reduced in the country, development will continued to elude, Types of conflicts in Nigeria that can be explained with the po, Hence, this theory is a veritable source of anal, economic justice in a rental pseudo-capitalistic state like Ni, combat actors of conflicts that are caused by economic, of education that will make the average citizen patriotic, more attention to the protection of the basic hu, Continuous infrastructural development of the country. Oxford Econo, Collier, P., & Hoefflier, A. Africa's economic characteristics have made it more vulnerable to conflict, but this has been offset by social characteristics that make its societies atypically safe. The second precondition for PSC is the deprivation of needs. The second section suggests that some of the remaining inconsistencies among the econometric studies may be caused by differences in the ways they code civil wars and cope with missing data. The effects of “youth bulge‟ on civil conflicts. Africa in general and in Nigeria in particular. The UN DESA (2001) states that the suppression of needs for subsistence, security, identity, affection, freedom and participation are very relevant for explaining ethnic conflicts. Journal of African econo, India. Cyprus, Copyright © 2020 UniAssignment.com | Powered by Brandconn Digital. Azar (1990) observes that the state lacks the ability to properly mediate in conflict by getting needs satisfaction for multiple communities or groups. Using multiple regression analysis, this cross-national research examines the interaction between economic inequality and political opportunities, and their direct effects on political violence. For proposals on managing ethnic rivalries involving lower levels of ethnic mobilization and violence, see Stephen Van Evera, "Managing the Eastern Crisis: Preventing War in the Former Soviet Empire," Security Studies, Vol. The impact of class exploitation on violent political conflict is moderated by regime structure and political institutionalization. All rights reserved. The Peace and Conflict Re, and Akinteriwa, B. Ethnic wars involve organized large-scale violence, whether by regular forces (Turkish or Iraqi operations against the Kurds) or highly mobilized civilian populations (the interahamwe in Rwanda or the Palestinian intifada). The last condition for PSC is the role of international linkage. The group compares that need relative to another group and could resort to violence in order to satisfy their quest (need) for that power or resource. Ethnic Politics in Nigeria. It is not possible to negotiate a settlement to a conflict that requires one of the parties to compromise a basic need (UN DESA, 2001, p. 16). The protracted social conflict theory identifies a plethora of factors as being responsible for intractable conflicts. This raises the question: when the need is one and indivisible between two parties, how it can be met? It adopts a comparative approach to the study of African proverbs focusing on two communities highlighting the points of convergence [and divergence] in their cultural knowledge systems. capitalists state, structural inequalities, or otherwise are sometimes presented in the literature, military capabilities. 3-20; William Pfaff, "Invitation to War," Foreign Affairs, Vol. For example, the political interference of the state in relation to multi-ethnic groups can lead to or exacerbate conflict, thereby making it protracted or when a group is deprived of their needs, it can lead to dissatisfaction and violent actions. The causes of intractable conflict usually include questions of values, claim to identity, cultural norms, power, resources, human needs, past history of ethnocentrism, discrimination, colonialism and abuse (Coleman, 2000). Violent political conflict has typically been studied either from an economic discontent or a political opportunity framework. Abraham Maslow (1970) in his hierarchy of needs identifies physiological needs (security), love or belongingness, self-esteem and self actualization as important needs that all humans tend to seek. These sources, according to Azar (1990), include cultural, political, economic, colonial and institutional factors. It is not only the deprivation of needs for identity, recognition, security, the right to belong and power that will result in conflict. The human needs theory of conflict is akin to the relative deprivation and the frustration- aggression theories of conflict. To avoid discounting fundamentally similar conflicts because of differences in international legal status, "civil" wars are defined here as those among "geographically contiguous people concerned about possibly having to live with one another in the same political unit after the conflict." The theory also places premium on some needs as being more important than others, which is not so. He states that human needs include development needs, security needs, political access needs and identity/acceptance needs (cultural and religious expression). Enugu: fourth dimension publishers. Any need denied can also result in conflict.
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