The only way for the BJP was to revive the Mandir (temple) issue as forcefully as possible (Jaffrelot 1996: 449–481). Muslims riposted. Trains were also attacked: passengers, whose names were identified as Muslim on the reservation charts, were killed. The riot claimed 25 lives according to official sources, while unofficial estimates put the death toll at 40, and, on occasion, as high as 100. The city of Indore (Madhya Pradesh) was hit by communal violence, over the conflict concerning the Amarnath temple in Kashmir. Violence erupted on Independence Day in Hubli (Karnataka). ***(Brass 1997: 214–259); **(Sunday 20–26/12/1992), Chief Minister of Assam: Hiteshwar Saikia, Congress Party, June 1991–April 1996. Every report on these events indicated that the riot was well-planned and sponsored by the BJP-led Gujarat administration and its chief minister, [Narendra Modi->http://www.massviolence.org/Narendra-Modi?decoupe_recherche=narendra%20modi]. Riots erupted on December 7. Giant yatras (processions) were organized so that the 500,000 villages of India would participate in the event: each of them was supposed to send or to carry a shilanya (sacred brick) to build the formidable Ram Temple, whose miniature model was exposed in front of the Babri Masjid. In 1999, the electorate granted the Hindu party the support it needed to form a well-balanced government. For the minorities, this was a strong signal. In Channapatna, the «eve-teasing» (sexual harassment) of a Muslim girl by a Hindu boy triggered riots in which 17 people died (13 Muslims and 4 Hindus). The border between Meerut and Delhi was subsequently sealed. Many were badly beaten up. 1991; November 8 and 13: Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh), Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh: Kalyan Singh, BJP, June 1991–December 1992. They were arrested by police, angering a crowd of BJP activists. The district administration, ignoring both the sensitivities involved in such a demand and the directives of the state government, acquiesced and granted the procession's organizers permission to follow the proposed route. This riot remains a symbol of the communalization of the South of India. That proved to be a terrible mistake. (1) Economic exploitation of India (2) Western education and thought (3) Unification of the countery under the British (4) None of the above Correct Answere: None of the above Show Answer 2. This violated a long-standing agreement between the two communities. Name the first major issue that the Indian Association, the precursor of the Congress, took up for agiation ? In other estimates, the violence was claimed to have taken more than 1,500 lives. He was dismembered and burned alive. ), 1984b, Communal Riots in Post-Independence India, Hyderabad: Sangam Books, ENGINEER, Asghar Ali, 1984c, Bhiwandi-Bombay Riots: Analysis and Documentation, Bombay: Institute of Islamic Studies, ENGINEER, Asghar Ali, 1983, «Communal Killings in Hyderabad», Economic and Political Weekly, October 1, 1983, XVIII, (40): 1688-1690, ENGINEER, Asghar Ali, 1982, «Baroda Riots, Wages of Political Corruption», Economic and Political Weekly, November 13-20 1982, XVII, (46-47): 1845-1947, ENGINEER, Asghar Ali, 1981, «Biharsharif Carnage: A Field Report», Economic and Political Weekly, May 16, 1981, XVI, (20): 887-889, ERDMAN, H. L., 1963, «India's Swatantra Party,» Public Affairs, 36 (4): 394-410, FARUQI, Ziya-ul-Hasan, 1963, The Deoband School and the Demand for Pakistan, Bombay: Asia Publishing House, FELDMAN, Herbert, 1969, «The Communal Problem in the Indo-Pakistan Sub-Continent: Some Current Implications», Pacific Affairs, Summer 1969, 42 (2): 145-163, FREITAG, Sandria, 1980, Religious Rites and Riots: From Community Identity to Communalism in North India 1870-1940, PhD Dissertation, University of California, GABORIEAU, Marc, 2011, «The Muslims of India: A Minority of 170 Million», in JAFFRELOT, Christophe (ed. The earth is its maximum distance from the sun on ? The actual death toll, however, probably amounted to more than 400. Answer: Kiribati 3. Who is the author of ‘Himalayan Blunder’? ***(Jaffrelot 1996: 422); **(India Today 15/12/1990). HYV activists fired. **(Sunday 20–26/12/1992); **(Frontline 01/01/1993), 1992; December 6–11: Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh), Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh: none, President's Rule from 6 December 1992 to 4 December 1993. The state of Assam, already tense due to the Bengali-Assamese language issue and to agitation by the AAMSU (All Assam Minority Students Union), experienced communal violence in the wake of the Babri Masjid destruction. In the first riot, which started on December 15, seventy-four people lost their lives (62 Muslims and 12 Hindus). Armed gangs launched attacks on villages. Arson and killings began, with armed men firing at passers-by from the town's rooftops. The Pakistani networks? Fourteen of them, including two police officers, were found guilty. Their involvement was so extensive, that Bihar's Director General of Police had to call for Dvivedi's immediate replacement. The police opened fire. Attacks on Muslims by Hindu mobs multiplied after this rumor was broadcast. The minimum distance between the sun and the earth occurs on ? Further rioting took place on January 31 after a bomb exploded in a Muslim house. The situation was brought under control on December 12, but according to the Justice Srikrishna Commission, stray incidents of violence continued to occur till January 5, when the second phase of the riot started. It set up emotions, of course, and a riot erupted in Lucknow-of all cities, it was the least communal-prone in Uttar Pradesh. Communal violence erupted in Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh) on December 10 when Muslim hawkers selling clothes were attacked and their merchandise burned. At the Centre, the Congress Party had to pay dearly for its past errors. Sixty-three Muslim houses were destroyed. **(The Times of India 27/05/1988); **(India Today 15/06/1988); ***(Engineer 1988a), Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh: Narain Dutt Tiwari, Congress Party, June 1988–December 1989. Following the demolition of the Babri Masjid, Bombay (Maharashtra) was the scene of serious Hindu–Muslim violence. The trial was cut short however, when one of the main witnesses, whose family members had been killed during the attack, eventually withdrew her testimony (probably under pressure and subject to intimidation). It could have just been an accidental unfortunate move. In Gulmarg Society, the 250 persons who had sought refuge in the house of former Muslim MP (Member of Parliament) Ahsan Jafry were targeted by a crowd of 20,000. Two hundred persons were killed. The main victims were poor Muslims who had already suffered during the 1984 gas catastrophe and middle-class Muslims from the BHEL industry (Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited). Violence occurred in different parts of the city, leading to the death of 18 Muslims (eight in police firing) and two Hindus. Following appeals broadcast from the mosque's loudspeaker, they pelted stones at the police. In November 1990, in Uttar Pradesh (UP) itself, the CM Mulayam Singh Yadav (later called «Maulana Mulayam» by grateful Muslims-[maulana means Islamic scholar]) managed to save the Babri Masjid, at least temporarily, from two successive kar sevaks (Hindu volunteers) assaults. **(Sunday 25–31/10/1992); ***(Engineer 1992a). A mob of 500–2,000 people encircled the train and set fire to the wagons, killing 58 Hindus, including 25 women and 14 children. One-third is to go to the Muslim claimants. Gujarat is one of the most dynamic places in India. Each one displays either courage or passivity (Saksena 1990). Tensions had been simmering but, with the perilous decisions taken in February 1986 (see «Hindu–Muslim Communal Riots in India I (1947–1986)» [Graff and Galonnier 2012]), the «Shah Bano case,» and the unlocking of the Babri Masjid), clashes turned to bloody riots, an occurrence which became distressingly commonplace. President's rule had been imposed on the four BJP states. The police remained impassive. While official estimates put the death toll for the entire state at 87, the media estimated that 100 to 300 people perished in the violence. Muslim business groups were targeted, particularly the Bohras (a Shia sect). Communal violence flared up in the city of Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu). In Baroda, riots erupted when the Ganapati procession, led by the BJP Health Minister of Gujarat, crossed a Muslim locality. The future is open (Alam 2008). Engineer reported 60 deaths. ), 1987c, Delhi-Meerut Riots: Analysis, Compilation and Documentation, Delhi: Ajanta Publications, ENGINEER, Asghar Ali, 1986, «Gujarat Burns Again», Economic and Political Weekly, August 2, 1986, XXI, (31): 1343-1346, ENGINEER, Asghar Ali, 1985a, «Communal Fire Engulfs Ahmedabad Once Again», Economic and Political Weekly, July 6, 1985, XX, (27): 1116-1120, ENGINEER, Asghar Ali, 1985b, «Ahmedabad: From Caste to Communal Violence», Economic and Political Weekly, April 13, 1985, XX, (15): 628-630, ENGINEER, Asghar Ali, 1984a, «Bombay-Bhiwandi Riots in National Political Perspective», Economic and Political Weekly, June 21, 1984, XIX, (29): 1134-1136, ENGINEER, Asghar Ali (ed.
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