During the second, photosynthesis begins as the plant develops leaves and branches above-ground and stolons develop from lower leaf axils on the below-ground stem. It remains an essential crop in Europe, especially Northern and Eastern Europe, where per capita production is still the highest in the world, while the most rapid expansion in production over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia, with China and India leading the world in overall production as of 2018. , The potato has been an essential crop in the Andes since the pre-Columbian Era. Normal potato tubers that have been grown and stored properly produce glycoalkaloids in amounts small enough to be negligible to human health, but if green sections of the plant (namely sprouts and skins) are exposed to light, the tuber can accumulate a high enough concentration of glycoalkaloids to affect human health. Aloo posto (a curry with potatoes and poppy seeds) is immensely popular in East India, especially Bengal. Colcannon is a traditional Irish food made with mashed potato, shredded kale or cabbage, and onion; champ is a similar dish. The average quantity of all pesticide traces found in the 2,216 samples was 1.602 ppm. In India, the most popular potato dishes are aloo ki sabzi, batata vada, and samosa, which is spicy mashed potato mixed with a small amount of vegetable stuffed in conical dough, and deep fried. French fries and often hash browns are commonly found in typical American fast-food burger "joints" and cafeterias. Since exposure to light leads to an undesirable greening of the skins and the development of solanine as a protection from the sun's rays, growers cover surface tubers.  Around 80 varieties are commercially available in the UK.  Potatoes that are good for making potato chips or potato crisps are sometimes called "chipping potatoes", which means they meet the basic requirements of similar varietal characteristics, being firm, fairly clean, and fairly well-shaped.  Other potato diseases include Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia, black leg, powdery mildew, powdery scab and leafroll virus. , Potato plants are herbaceous perennials that grow about 60 cm (24 in) high, depending on variety, with the leaves dying back after flowering, fruiting and tuber formation. , According to conservative estimates, the introduction of the potato was responsible for a quarter of the growth in Old World population and urbanization between 1700 and 1900. Genetically modified varieties have met public resistance in the United States and in the European Union. As of 2014, potatoes were the world's fourth-largest food crop after maize (corn), wheat, and rice. In 2010, the European Commission cleared the way for 'Amflora' to be grown in the European Union for industrial purposes only—not for food. The Acadian poutine is a ball of grated and mashed potato, salted, sometimes filled with pork in the centre, and boiled.  Potatoes are mostly cross-pollinated by insects such as bumblebees, which carry pollen from other potato plants, though a substantial amount of self-fertilizing occurs as well. Insects that commonly transmit potato diseases or damage the plants include the Colorado potato beetle, the potato tuber moth, the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), the potato aphid, beet leafhoppers, thrips, and mites. A traditional Acadian dish from New Brunswick is known as poutine râpée. , There is a big gap among various countries between high and low yields, even with the same variety of potato. In the UK, potatoes form part of the traditional staple, fish and chips. The Scottish Miller 1700–1900. Potatoes form one of the main ingredients in many soups such as the vichyssoise and Albanian potato and cabbage soup. 2003 May 7; 51(10): 2964–73, "United States Potato Board -Seed Potatoes", Science & Advice for Scottish Agriculture, "Dutch saltwater potatoes offer hope for world's hungry", "NJF seminar No. The Aloo gosht, Potato and meat curry, is one of the popular dishes in South Asia, especially in Pakistan. , Potatoes are usually cured after harvest to improve skin-set. Curing is normally done at relatively warm temperatures (10 to 16 °C or 50 to 60 °F) with high humidity and good gas-exchange if at all possible. Pub. Since its eggs can survive in the soil for several years, crop rotation is recommended.  Like many crops, potatoes are likely to be affected by changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, temperature and precipitation, as well as interactions between these factors. At harvest time, gardeners usually dig up potatoes with a long-handled, three-prong "grape" (or graip), i.e., a spading fork, or a potato hook, which is similar to the graip but with tines at a 90° angle to the handle. Y raw yam Fact Check: What Power Does the President Really Have Over State Governors? China and India accounted for over a third of world's production in 2010, and had yields of 14.7 and 19.9 tonnes per hectare respectively. Commercial harvesting is typically done with large potato harvesters, which scoop up the plant and surrounding earth. Potato skins, along with honey, are a folk remedy for burns in India. Vada pav is a popular vegetarian fast food dish in Mumbai and other regions in the Maharashtra in India. There are two triploid species (with 36 chromosomes): S. chaucha and S. juzepczukii. In western Norway, komle is popular. Some of the more notable dishes include boiled potato as a base for several dishes or with ají-based sauces like in Papa a la Huancaína or ocopa, diced potato for its use in soups like in cau cau, or in Carapulca with dried potato (papa seca). Seed potato crops are rogued in some countries to eliminate diseased plants or those of a different variety from the seed crop. Cross-breeding has been done repeatedly to transfer resistances to certain pests and diseases from the gene pool of wild species to the gene pool of cultivated potato species. Eliminating all root-weeds is desirable in potato cultivation. Although potatoes are not native to India, it has become a vital part of food all over the country especially North Indian food preparations. However, when these commercial varieties turn green, they can still approach solanine concentrations of 1000 mg/kg (1000 ppmw). To be disease free, the areas where seed potatoes are grown are selected with care. The importance of the potato as a food source and culinary ingredient varies by region and is still changing. F raw green soybeans Skin-set is the process by which the skin of the potato becomes resistant to skinning damage. The potato was slow to be adopted by European farmers, but soon enough it became an important food staple and field crop that played a major role in the European 19th century population boom. The historically significant Phytophthora infestans (late blight) remains an ongoing problem in Europe and the United States.  The potato genome contains 12 chromosomes and 860 million base pairs, making it a medium-sized plant genome.  Another relative native to this region, Solanum bulbocastanum, has been used to genetically engineer the potato to resist potato blight. Watch more videos for more knowledge Is The Potato A Vegetable? Potatoes (mainly Russets) are commonly used in plant research. Further inspection and separation occurs when the potatoes are unloaded from the field vehicles and put into storage.
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