His execution consisted of drinking poison hemlock. The interpretation of these principles has been subject to discussion ever since. Seminal figures include Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, and Jean-Paul Sartre. 20th century philosophy was set for a series of attempts to reform and preserve, and to alter or abolish, older knowledge systems.  This tradition identifies metaphysical reality with change. Since the Second World War, contemporary philosophy has been divided mostly into analytic and continental traditions; the former carried in the English speaking world and the latter on the continent of Europe. The term "analytic philosophy" roughly designates a group of philosophical methods that stress detailed argumentation, attention to semantics, use of classical logic and non-classical logics and clarity of meaning above all other criteria.  They are neither exhaustive nor mutually exclusive. Some analytic philosophers held that philosophical problems arise through misuse of language or because of misunderstandings of the logic of human language. we mean the absence of pain in the body and trouble in the mind". Renaissance philosophy is perhaps best explained by two propositions made by Leonardo da Vinci in his notebooks: In a similar way, Galileo Galilei based his scientific method on experiments but also developed mathematical methods for application to problems in physics. , The Ancient Greek philosopher Pyrrho accompanied Alexander the Great in his eastern campaigns, spending about 18 months in India. He died in 399 BC. Bertrand Russell and G. E. Moore are also often counted as founders of analytic philosophy, beginning with their rejection of British idealism, their defense of realism and the emphasis they laid on the legitimacy of analysis. Nietzsche found in this not grounds for pessimism, but the possibility of a new kind of freedom. Through the work of Heidegger and Sartre, Husserl's focus on subjective experience influenced aspects of existentialism.  Zeno of Elea formulated his famous paradoxes in order to support the Parmenides' views about the illusion of plurality and change (in terms of motion), by demonstrating them to be impossible. Recently, the experimental philosophy movement has sought to reappraise philosophical problems through social science research techniques.  Aiming to develop an understanding of the soul, he was led to consider metaphysical questions of substance, matter, form, and change. Aristotelian logic was the first type of logic to attempt to categorize every valid syllogism.  An alternative explanation was presented by Heraclitus, who claimed that everything was in flux all the time, famously pointing out that one could not step into the same river twice. The Greek biographer Diogenes Laërtius explained that Pyrrho's equanimity and detachment from the world were acquired in India. It describes a process where theory is extracted from practice, and applied back to practice to form what is called intelligent practice. In a sociological sense, idealism emphasizes how human ideas—especially beliefs and values—shape society. Renaissance humanism emphasized the value of human beings (see Oration on the Dignity of Man) and opposed dogma and scholasticism. Protagoras, one of the most influential Sophist philosophers, claimed that "man is the measure of all things", suggesting there is no objective truth. Academic and Administrative CV Associate Dean and Professor of Philosophy, University of He finds that he can doubt nearly everything: the reality of physical objects, God, his memories, history, science, even mathematics, but he cannot doubt that he is, in fact, doubting.  The study of the classics and the humane arts generally, such as history and literature, enjoyed a scholarly interest hitherto unknown in Christendom, a tendency referred to as humanism.
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