Alain LeRoy Locke was a philosopher best known for his writing on and support of the Harlem Renaissance.  He saw egalitarian and peaceful socialist community as essentially antagonistic to life; in On the Genealogy of Morality he wrote: A legal system conceived of as sovereign and universal, not as a means in the struggle of power complexes, but as a means against all struggles in general, something along the lines of Dühring's communist cliché in which each will must be considered as equal to every will, that would be a principle hostile to life, a destroyer and dissolver of human beings, an assassination attempt on the future of human beings, a sign of exhaustion, a secret path to nothingness.. Nietzsche titled aphorism 377 in the fifth book of The Gay Science (published in 1887) "We who are homeless" (Wir Heimatlosen), in which he criticized pan-Germanism and patriotism and called himself a "good European". Nietzsche broke with his editor in 1886 because of his opposition to his editor's anti-Semitic stances, and his rupture with Richard Wagner, expressed in The Case of Wagner and Nietzsche contra Wagner, both of which he wrote in 1888, had much to do with Wagner's endorsement of pan-Germanism and anti-Semitism — and also of his rallying to Christianity. At age 24, he was the youngest ever appointed tothat post. Literary and Philosophical Work of the 1880s. Note, however, that one can explain Nietzsche's moral opinions without attributing to him the claim of their truth. German Romantic composer, pianist and conductor Felix Mendelssohn wrote the Overture to a 'Midsummer Night's Dream' and founded the Leipzig Conservatory of Music.  Later in his life he even started to identify as Polish, believing that his ancestors were Polish noblemen who migrated to Germany (both his Polish and aristocratic ancestry claims are usually rejected by biographers; see: Citizenship, nationality and ethnicity). The separation between us is thereby decided in really the most absurd way. determines values independently of predetermined foundations (nature) vs. determines values on predetermined, unquestioned foundations (Christianity). This idea of eternal recurrence became a cornerstone of his nihilism, and thus part of the foundation of what became existentialism. However, he did never recommend or argue for suicide – this is a common misconception – and aims to motivate those who abhor the world back to an active life with self-chosen goals. A recurring—but, so far, not eternally recurring—problem with the appreciation of Nietzsche's version of the eternal recurrence is that, unlike Wheeler, Nietzsche seems to think that this life will happen again not because it and all possible variations on it will happen over and over, but because there is only one possible variation—this one—and it will happen over and over." His best-known work is the 'Critique of Pure Reason.'. Schopenhauer directly influenced this theory. He wrote negatively of socialism as early as 1862 and his criticisms of socialism are often harsher than those of other doctrines. For much of the following decade, Nietzsche lived in seclusion, moving from Switzerland to France to Italy when he was not staying at his mother's house in Naumburg. Miles, Thomas. For Nietzsche, modern politics rests largely on a secular inheritance of Christian values (he interprets the socialist doctrine of equality in terms of a secularization of the Christian belief in the equality of all souls before God" (On the Genealogy of Morality, Ansell-Pearson and Diethe, eds., Cambridge University Press, 1994, p. 9).  In any case, few philosophers really consider Nietzsche an "individualist" thinker. One of his most significant works, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, was published in four volumes between 1883 and 1885. .  Mainländer is a hedonist and the goal of his ethics to indicate how man can reach the highest happiness. The question remained pendent. Mainländer is perhaps best understood as a negative influence on Nietzsche. Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher during the Enlightenment era of the late 18th century. Despite occasional reverence for ancient Germanic conquests and his identification of upper class with blond, dolichocephalic type, Nietzsche's ideas do not have much in common with Nordicism. He considered the individual subject as a complex of instincts and wills-to-power, just as any other organization. In The Will to Power he further elaborated similarity between Christianity and socialism: The Gospel is the announcement that the road to happiness lies open for the lowly and the poor—that all one has to do is to emancipate one's self from all institutions, traditions, and the tutelage of the higher classes. In: Zack, N. ed. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was born on October 15, 1844, in Röcken bei Lützen, a small village in Prussia (part of present-day Germany). , Much of Nietzsche contempt of politics is directed towards modern democratic, parliamentarian and party politics. "[non-primary source needed]. But I have already answered: all that proceeds from weakness, from envy, from revenge. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900) once wrote: “I love the great despisers, for they are the great adorers, and arrows of longing for the other shore.” He was such a despiser, and such an arrow, and he has been loved by millions for his philosophical poetry. © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. Thus Christianity is no more than the typical teaching of Socialists. He was deeply disturbed by the Paris Commune, he initially supported Bismarck but became disappointed by his later social policies and détente toward socialists and Catholics, he was worried about the rise of Adolf Stöcker, and after death of Emperor Friedrich III he became worried about the future of free speech in Germany.. Nietzsche extoled aristocratic societies and military elites claiming that they create higher quality of culture. He believed that mixed race persons were usually inferior because of the conflicting, incompatible instincts that exist in them, and advocated racial purification.  He similarly called Eugen Dühring an "apostle of revenge", "moral braggart" and his ideas "indecent and revolting moralistic gibberish". In January 1937 he dedicated an issue of Acéphale, titled "Reparations to Nietzsche", to the theme "Nietzsche and the Fascists. On Nietzsche and biology, see Barbara Stiegler, This page was last edited on 19 October 2020, at 11:12. However, they are more or less extensively quoted and discussed in eleven books that Nietzsche owned in his personal library and in one of them he underlined Marx's name. René Descartes praised science for preparing man to become a “master and possessor… If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! , One of the themes that Nietzsche often used to explain social phenomena was mixing of the races. In the field of meta-ethics, one can perhaps most accurately classify Nietzsche as a moral skeptic; meaning that he claims that all ethical statements are false, because any kind of correspondence between ethical statements and "moral facts" remains illusory.
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