(1) The temperature requirements of some aphids differ from place to place for the same species and from species to species. = 0.317 aphids/aphid per day) occurred at 25 °C, and the lowest at 30 °C (rm. Only two individuals become adult on Okitsu Wase mandarin variety and its developmental time was 22.7 days. The sex ratio (M/F) of the progeny was 0000008881 00000 n Line is the linear regression analysis of developmental rate and temperature within the range of 15 to 27.5°C, . Chlorantraniliprole+abamectin, metaflumizone, azadirachtin, emamectin benzoate, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis and B. thuringiensis+azadirachtin mixture were applied by spraying method on tomato leaf, which 5 third-stage larvae existed on. males, the developmental time was 12.65±0.68 and 12.30±0.87 days, respectively. All individuals in chlorantraniliprole+abamectin-, emamectin benzoate-and spinosad-treated larvae were died at the 7 DAA. Ten trees selected each determined orchards and main stem, branch and fruits of these trees were controlled and number of mealybug were counted every, Binodoxys angelicae (Haliday) (Hym. 0000004775 00000 n Three species of Chrysoperae carnea (Stephens, 1836), Dichochrysa flavifrons (Brauer, 1850) and Peyerimhoffina gracilis (Schneider, 1851) belonging to the family Chrysopidae and two species of Coniopteryx (Coniopteryx) pygmaea Enderlein, 1908, Semidalis aleyrodiformis (Stephens, 1836) from Coniopterygidae which is belonging to Neuroptera order , and two species belonging to Hemerobiidae family, Sympherobius (Sympherobius) fallax Navas,  and Sympherobius (Sympherobius) pygmaeus (Rambur, 1842) were recorded. (2) The temperature requirements of the parasites and hyperparasites associated with these aphids differ in a similar manner but, as a rule, are higher than those of their hosts. in orchards biological control application used, followed by summer oil sprayed orchards as 4.25 individuals, of C. carnea and Scymnus spp., and spirotetramat sprayed orchards as 2.67 individuals per orchard, of C. carnea and Scymnus spp. population projection showed Pl. , overwintering biology, molecular separation by using COI marker from the plain population of Ceratitis. Citrus mealybug population on fruit reached to fırst peak point on June 19, second peak point on July 20, third peak point on August 21, and last peak point on September 19 in Sarıçam. between November-December, and once a week between April- October. 0000011823 00000 n days old (young adult females) of N. viridis. endstream endobj 168 0 obj <>/Metadata 48 0 R/Pages 47 0 R/StructTreeRoot 50 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> endobj 169 0 obj >/PageWidthList<0 612.0>>>>>>/Resources<>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0]/Type/Page>> endobj 170 0 obj [171 0 R 172 0 R] endobj 171 0 obj <>/Border[0 0 0]/H/N/Rect[237.136 140.86 317.451 130.643]/StructParent 16/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> endobj 172 0 obj <>/Border[0 0 0]/H/N/Rect[227.592 130.66 368.911 120.443]/StructParent 17/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> endobj 173 0 obj <> endobj 174 0 obj <> endobj 175 0 obj <> endobj 176 0 obj [/ICCBased 196 0 R] endobj 177 0 obj <> endobj 178 0 obj <> endobj 179 0 obj <> endobj 180 0 obj <>stream Then, a couple of newly emerged parasitoids was released on A. gossypii for 24 hours. It belongs to the Class Insecta, Order Hemiptera, Family Pseudococcidae, Genus Planococcus and Species citri .The citrus mealybug (a short-tailed mealybug) is a soft-bodied pseudococcid. The obtained adults were prepared in accordance with their methods and sent to subject experts and diagnosed. The damage of the pest increased highly on citrus trees in Fars province in recent Hatching rate of eggs and mortality rates in different biological stages of Planococcus citri on grapefruit leaves under different temperature regimes, . laboratory conditions, 27±1.5°C, 60±5% RH and 16:8h L:D, on 18 (3rd-instar nymphs) and 24 The first nymph stage lasted 7.86 d for females, and 8.1 d for males at 25°C. 0 Side effect of pesticide on benificail insect. 167 0 obj <> endobj The most and the least cultivars preferred by the pest were Yalova İncisi (6.4 eggs, 3.7 larvae) and Flame Seedless (2.0 eggs, 1.1 larvae), re-spectively. Since few mealybugs developed to oviposition at 30°C, their higher developmental thresholds are around this temperature. The mean Mealybug population on fruit reached to first peak point on June 26 with 15 individualper tree, second peak point on July 31, third peak point on August 23 (9 individual), and last peak point on September 25 with 18 individual in Kozan in 2013. The mean number of offspring Besides its worldwide importance, chemical control is a significant, major method to suppress the population of P. citri in Turkey. the host was 14.40±0.79 and 13.45±0.52 days in 18 and 24 days old nymphs, respectively. 0000408904 00000 n intrinsic rate of increase (r) were 32.07 eggs/individual, 41.43 days, 1.087 day-1, and 0.084 day-1, respectively. The seasonal development of nymphs and adult females of P. citriculus predicted using temperatures at Okitsu Branch, Fruit Tree Research Station from 1993 to 1994 matched the actual seasonal occurrence of the mealybug in a citrus orchard in those years. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)’nin sabit ve değişken. %%EOF Because of possibility of phytoxicity effect of summer oil in hot weather condition; spirotetramat has a chance in IPM application for managing citrus mealybug. When P. citri population reached the peak level, approximately 500 S. pygmaues individuals were released to each orchard. trailer Population levels of prey and predators were monitored for two years, with weekly intervals between May-October and one time for two weeks between December and April of the following year. Second year’s population was similar to the first year but it was lower than the first year. Temperature-dependent development rate of Planococcus citri at three constant and one alternating temperature (27.5°C for 25/30°C) on grapefruit leaves. 0000005422 00000 n Mean numbers of live metaflumizone-, azadirachtin-, Bacillus thuringiensis-and B. thuringiensis+azadirachtin-treated larvae at the 7 DAA were recorded as 0.33, 1.17, 0.67 and 0.33, respectively. 0000009733 00000 n The least common species were Scymnus apetzia Mulsant and Hyperaspis quadrimaculata Redtenbacher. The developmental time of female parasitoids within Four grapefruit orchards from Erdemli (Mersin), Sarıçam, Kozan, Yüreğir (Adana) were used for this study. Egg hatching time was observed similar between the varieties. For Population fluctations of Citrus mealybug [Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)] in... Effect of temperature on some biological parameters of Binodoxys angelicae (Haliday) (Hym. totally 150 fruits per orchard. Citrus mealybug population on fruit reached to fırst peak point on June 19, second peak point on July 20, third peak point on August 21, and last peak point on September 19 in Sarıçam. mealybugs respectively. %PDF-1.4 %���� However, chorpyrifos-ethyl was incompatible, due to side effects on natural enemies. mealybugs. This study was conducted to evaluate efficiency of biological and chemical control methods against citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri Risso (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae), caused important economic losses in the east Mediterranean region of Turkey. These species are Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault), Coccidoxenoides perminutus Girault, 1915, Leptomastidae abnormis (Girault, 1915) and Leptomastix dactylopii Howard. The mealybug density differences among the applied methods were analyzed to compare the average mealybug infestation rate in insecticide and biological control applied orchards, and it was different insignificantly. The aggregate percentage of encapsulated eggs have led to. grapevine variety, the net reproductive rate (R0), mean generation time (T), the finite rate of increase (λ), and the Mean generation time (To) of the population ranged from 11.3 days at 30 °C to 22.6 days at 15 °C. 0000015035 00000 n per female was 32 and 47 in 18 and 24 d.o. H�\��j�@��}��l/��Yg�@HZ���94�����*s������� The larval and parasitoid mummies seen in the visual control method were brought to the laboratory and cultured to obtain the adults.. In this presentation, how the IPM tactics used for suppressing the key pests, diseases and weeds, and how to prevent the potential species reach to economic levels will be explained and discussed. The highest average number of natural enemies for each treatment was determined as 20.57 individuals, of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), C. montrouzieri, and Scymnus spp. The preadult duration of females Pl. 0000003965 00000 n In this study, information on citri was 28.31 days, while the preadult duration for male individuals was 26.25 days. During the survey, parasitoids obtained from the mummified citrus mealybug in the citrus orchards were identified as 4 species belonging to the family Encyrtidae from Hymenoptera. For the study, 10 trees were randomly chosen from each orchard and the individuals on the plants, 4 branches, and stem of each tree were counted to determine the population level.
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