Its twenty-nine volumes are published under the auspices of the Berlin-Brandenburg (formerly Royal Prussian) and Göttingen Academies by Walter de Gruyter in Berlin and New York. In the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant mentions the examples of fortune and fate (Glück, Schicksal, A 84/B 117). But like fate and fortune, the concept of duty might be no more than an ‘empty concept’ (Ⅳ 421.12), a natural and understandable idea to which nothing corresponds in reality. Readers who do not use this edition will still get a good impression as to where on a large, mostly thirty-seven-line Academy page the reference is to be found. Let us start with what not to expect from a Grundlegung. Kant's Metaphysics of Morals is a reasoned approach to morality that stretches outside the bounds of the empirical and into the world, or pure reason. The question then is this: Is it a necessary law, The will is conceived as a faculty of determining oneself to action, Supposing, however, that there were something, Now I say: man and generally any rational being, If then there is a supreme practical principle or, in respect of the human will, a categorical imperative, it must be one which, being drawn from the conception of that which is necessarily an end for every one because it is, This principle, that humanity and generally every rational nature is, On this principle all maxims are rejected which are inconsistent with the will being itself universal legislator. }+��q�~J��?��P� Now he inquires whether the maxim of his action could become a universal law of nature. Sometimes it happens that with the sharpest self-examination we can find nothing beside the moral principle of duty which could have been powerful enough to move us to this or that action and to so great a sacrifice; yet we cannot from this infer with certainty that it was not really some secret impulse of self-love, under the false appearance of duty, that was the actual determining cause of the will. For Bettina, Hans, Jakob, Ricarda, Carlotta and Florentin. that the act was done from and not merely in conformity with duty. We can never become completely good. The first five or so pages contain a careful discussion of the nature and necessity of a future metaphysics of morals, and it is only towards the end that Kant turns to the prior, ‘critical’ task of grounding this novel discipline. It was again Hamann who, in a letter to Scheffner in February 1784, reported that Kant was working on a ‘Counter-Critique’ (Antikritik) of Garve’s ‘Cicero’ that was, as a matter of fact, intended as a retort against the unabridged review of the Critique (Ⅳ 626). 1909-14. Kant’s handwritten notes or ‘Reflections’, consecutively numbered and printed in volumes ⅪⅤ–ⅪⅩ of the Academy edition, are quoted as ‘R’. (IV 417–20), a Derivation of the general formula of the categorical imperative from its concept (IV 420–1), 4 The first variant: universal laws of nature (IV 421–4), a The universal-law-of-nature formulation (IV 421), b Application of this formula to the four examples of duty (IV 421–4), 6 The second variant: rational creatures as ends-in-themselves (IV 427–31), a Derivation of the ‘formula of humanity as the end-in-itself’ from the concept of a will (IV 427–9), b Application of this formula to the four examples of duty (IV 429–31), 7 The third variant: autonomy in a kingdom of ends (IV 431–6), a Derivation of the formula of autonomy from the other two (IV 431), b A universally legislative will is independent of all interest (IV 431–3), c Self-legislation, morality and the kingdom of ends (IV 433–4), d A moral being possesses dignity, not a price (IV 434–6), 8 Reflections on the variant formulations of the categorical imperative (IV 436–40), a The connection between the three variants of the categorical imperative (IV 436–7), b Review of the Groundwork so far: the good will and the formulations of the categorical imperative (IV 437–40), 9 The autonomy of the moral will (IV 440–4), b Division of ethical theories according to the principle of heteronomy (IV 441–4), 10 Transition to Section Ⅲ : How is a synthetic practical proposition possible ?
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